Results of an Independent Investigation on the Consequences of Industrial Pollution to Sosnivkas En

 
 

Results of an Independent Investigation on the Consequences of Industrial Pollution to Sosnivkas En

Results of an Independent Investigation on the Consequences of Industrial Pollution to Sosnivkas Environment



Results of an Independent Investigation on the Consequences of Industrial Pollution to Sosnivkas Environment

Contents

Introduction................................................................3
Results of the geochemical investigations...................4
Elemental analysis from sources of industrial
pollution..............................................................4
Analysis of water sources of the investigated area......5
Analysis of bioacumulation in plants..........................5
Results of the biosubstrate investigation ..................12
Conclusions ..............................................................34

Introduction

Chervonograd district has the most serious environmental problems of Lviv Oblast. At the end of 1995 and the beginning of 1996, nearly 65 percent of the children in Sosnivka suffered from fluorosis(27 percent were seriously ill). At the same time, other problems with childrens health appeared at the surrounding towns of Chervonograd, Sokal, and Girnyk, although to a lesser extent.
Chervonograd district has essentially one form of relief, without large hills or valleys. Some slightly-sloping areas divide watersheds. The river valleys are wide and they have sloping banks in the western and eastern parts of Chervonograd district. The Western Bug, Rata, Solokiya, and Bolotnya rivers flow through the polluted district. Forest occupies approximately 15 percent of the district. The district is heavily urbanized; most of the population lives in towns such as Chervonograd, Sosnivka, and Sokal.
Chervonograd district has the most developed coal-mining industry of Western Ukraine. The main ecological problems of the Chervonograd industrial region are: collapsing soil(which demolishes establishments), the intensive process of hill-forming, the change of geochemical districts and landscape pollution, soil and groundwater pollution, and air pollution. Coal-mining undermines soil and is connected to hill-forming, sinking of ground levels, and erosion. Intensive flooding was observed in the western collector pond of the Central Coal-Processing Factory (CCPF) and at the south-western part of its water reservoir. The houses of the old section Chervonograd, the southern zone of Sosnivka, and some houses on the right bank of the Solokiya River were damaged by the shifting ground.
The purpose of this report is to determine the influence of the coal-mining complex on the health(specifically the fluorosis and hypoplasia epidemics) of the districts children.

Results of Geochemical Investigations

During the geochemical investigations of Sosnivka, 34 plots of soil were selected. Each plot was measured for the amount of 8 elements(F, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn). The results of the analysis (table 1) formed the basis for mathematic processing to obtain a pollution index. Using this index, the presence or absence of industrial pollution could be surmised. Previous research suggested that such an index can be a coefficient of concentration, which actually is a relation of the concentration of an element in a sample to a baseline concentration. This baseline criteria is formed by determining the maximum probable concentration of an element in a sample without industrial pollution. A coefficient of concentration which is less than or equal to 1 suggests normal geochemical levels. A coefficient exceeding 1 suggests the presence of industrial pollution. If the sample site was located in a complicated geological region or if there was significant variance in the region, selection for the valuing parameters of division was founded mainly on the analysis of group similarity. The significance of geochemical backgrounds were also compared with concentrations of chemical elements in the soil.
After mathematically processing the data, the presence of chemical elements in unusually high concentrations was detected(F, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn). The complex analysis of divisions of concentration of elements revealed two zones of industrial pollution(ZIP).
The first zone is located north of Sosnivka and includes the territory of the fifth mine, the Central Coal-Processing Factory, the eighth mine, and surrounding areas.
The second zone is located in the streambeds of the Zolotava and Western Bug Rivers.

Elemental Analysis From Sources of Industrial Pollution

Analyses were made of the rock of slag heaps(terricones) surrounding the eighth mine and the coal from the eighth mine. The rock, as compared with coal, is the more dangerous exponent of elements(table 2). Rock has twice coals level of F, Cu, Pb, and Ni; Fe 1.4 times; Mn 2.5 times; and Cd 1.5 times.
So, one constant source of pollution of Sosnivkas environment are terricones. Because of this, the relative mobility of elements was analyzed. A comparative analysis was made of the concentration of elements from the rock of terricones and nearby soil. Some elements were intensively washed out; that is, there was a higher concentration in the soil than in the rock: F and Fe (1.4 times more); Cu (1.7 times more), Zn (1.5 times more), Ni (1.1 times more). Less mobile elements are those where the concentration of elements in the rock is greater than the nearby soil: Mn (1.9 times more), Pb (2.5 times more) and Cd (6.4 times more).

Analysis of Samples from Water Sources of the Investigative Area

Water samples were taken from the eighth mine and from private wells of Velkhivka. Velkhivka, a part of Silets village, is situated in the north-west corner of the investigative area and borders the Central Coal-Processing Factory and eighth mine. Mine water exceeds oblast standards: for F (1.1 to 1.6 times); for Fe (20-50 times); for Pb (in the southern-division water accumulator by two orders of magnitude; for Cd (10-20 times); and for Ni (3-4 times). In inhabitants wells, the concentration of Fe exceeds allowable standards 70 to 130 times (in Kurka`s well, the concentration of Fe is 700 times the allowable level; his children suffer from fluorosis); of Pb, 200-500 times; of Cd, by an order of magnitude; of Ni, 5-25 times; of Cu, 2.9 times; the concentration of F is the maximum allowed.
The correlation of high concentrations of elements from eighth mine waters and private wells suggests that the source of industrial water pollution in the inhabitants` wells is the activity of the Chervonograd coal-mining complex.

Analysis of Bioacumulation of Pollutants by Plants

Elemental analyses of plant samples are given in table 4. The Scientific-Researching Institute of Plants has data for the average levels (AL) of elements in plants(table 5). Vatutin collective farm from Rivne oblast also has them(table 6).
Examination of data showed that the worst violations are:
- of lead. For maize and potato the violation can be greater than an order of magnitude.
- of nickel. For potato, beet, and grass concentrations exceed standards by an order of magnitude; nickel accumulates mostly in grass and can reach levels greater than 1.5 orders of magnitude.
- of manganese. A small violation (1-2 times) occurs in beets and maize, and larger (greater than an order of magnitude) in potatoes and grass.
- of fluorine. In potatoes, the amount of fluorine exceeded by 6-8 times the average level in Ukraine and Russia; in fodder beets the limit was exceeded 10 times.

Among the analyzed plants, the root-crops were discovered to be the most polluted.


Table 1. The Results of the Analysis of Soil Samples from Sosnivka, s 10-3 percent
Sample F* Cu Fe Mn Pb Cd Ni Zn
1 10.90 0.62 318.90 23.90 1.07 0.06 0.03 0.94
2 3.40 0.50 111.69 5.99 0.54 0.03 1.81 0.30
3 8.75 0.20 89.61 2.96 3.39 0.06 0.45 0.35
4 6.65 0.24 167.00 5.76 1.92 0.01 1.29 0.30
5 5.70 0.25 101.18 1.62 1.31 0.10 0.28 0.40
6 11.05 0.40 486.72 43.19 1.14 0.15 1.59 0.42
7 10.90 1.71 228.19 12.27 2.70 0.04 1.32 1.39
8 7.65 0.15 73.40 1.17 1.84 0.06 0.90 0.78
9 6.05 0.39 182.02 8.81 0.92 0.12 0.60 0.50
10 6.20 0.27 71.32 2.00 1.03 0.02 1.32 0.20
11 8.65 0.49 128.47 15.10 1.99 0.04 0.89 0.55
12 7.60 0.26 349.52 2.98 1.63 0.10 0.06 0.51
13 10.15 0.36 313.84 7.85 5.25 0.26 2.54 0.57
14 7.15 0.58 118.72 2.19 1.16 0.26 1.90 0.48
15 9.70 0.71 280.16 24.97 2.00 0.01 1.42 1.01
16 5.20 0.41 46.30 1.01 1.27 0.08 1.60 0.83
17 3.35 0.36 43.58 1.10 3.64 0.11 1.27 0.14
18 10.05 0.67 372.19 28.5 2.76 0.08 1.44 0.70
19 7.30 0.40 243.22 2.99 2.21 0.04 2.43 0.18
20 4.60 0.28 47.39 1.49 0.27 0.13 1.78 2.10
21 8.50 0.66 180.43 8.99 2.25 0.13 1.31 0.85
22 7.80 0.82 362.87 37.5 0.95 0.15 2.16 0.60
23 6.75 0.45 205.08 15.41 1.36 0.05 0.43 0.53
24 8.65 1.58 387.79 28.49 2.15 0.19 0.48 0.98
25 6.95 0.90 536.81 51.65 3.46 0.39 2.93 0.87
26 8.00 0.99 296.75 9.90 2.05 0.09 3.27 0.53

Table 1. Continuation
Sample F* Cu Fe Mn Pb Cd Ni Zn
27 7.40 0.90 446.44 12.41 1.92 0.23 2.20 0.66
28 7.15 0.53 249.27 7.22 1.37 0.22 1.14 0.41
29 7.30 0.88 455.44 32.94 4.04 0.38 3.34 0.66
30 5.15 0.97 341.81 10.52 3.33 0.11 1.26 0.79
31 5.60 1.75 349.95 23.43 2.65 0.14 2.17 0.49
32 4.60 0.42 199.17 6.94 1.24 0.19 0.75 0.30
33 4.90 0.32 104.91 3.63 1.05 0.18 0.99 0.51
34 6.70 0.70 527.44 30.76 2.46 0.11 2.78 0.55
concentration in soil by D.P.Maluga*** 2.0 85 1.0 0.05 2.85 5.0
7.25 0.62 247.58 13.97 1.98 0.13 1.47 0.63
* - mg/kg


Table 2. Analysis of Industrial Pollution Sources, mg/kg
source F Cu Fe Mn Pb Cd Ni Zn
Coal from mine 8 2.32 3.575 4350.54 247.908 25.022 0.150 29.430 3.960
Rocks from mine 8 4.49 7.775 6112.143 637.818 56.670 5.130 43.740 6.405
Rocks from mine 8's terricone 6.95 30.575 4053.408 399.378 99.722 0.960 35.175 7.440
Runoff from the terricone of mine 8's 9.70 51.350 5681.478 210.198 39.782 0.150 30.900 10.785

Table 3. The Analysis of Water Samples. mg/l
Sample number Place of selection F Cu Fe Mn Pb Cd Ni Zn Total minera-lization. g/l
1 eighth mine. Southern division water accumulator 2.42 0.5 26.9 0.5 4.62 2.2 3.8 2 eighth mine. slope gutter 1.66 0.4 12.9 1.1 3 eighth mine. point number 109 conveyor drift 2.04 0.5 11.4 0.8 4 eighth mine. central water accumulator 1.92 0.5 11.2 1.0 5 eighth mine. western regular-route conveyor belt(to terricones) 2.15 0.3 12.8 1.2 6 Kurka`s well 1.49 2.9 348.5 1.1 13.79 0.3 26.6 0.39 0.7994
7 Iskiv`s well 0.95 0.6 65.3 1.4 17.61 0.1 11.9 0.18 3.3495
8 Terekh`s well 1.18 1.0 35.7 32.5 6.93 1.4 5.7 0.14 1.7804
9 Lviv Academy of Veterinary Medicine 0.65 0.450 1.900 0.970 Maximum allowed concentration 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.03 0.1 1.0 1.0

Table 4. Contents of Elements in Various Plants (Sosnivka), mg/kg
Sample plant type F Cu Fe Mn Pb Ni Zn
1 mixed grass 2.32 6.031 667.60 85.62 9.420 10.770 2.4
2 mixed grass 2.51 4.756 1645.16 925.30 16.920 0.015 14.1
3 potato 2.29 4.396 198.26 5.22 31.890 16.986 3.2
mixed grass 2.00 9.436 481.34 139.71 6.855 6.930 11.1
potato 2.43 7.966 201.53 85.35 13.200 33.735 9.3
mixed grass 2.13 8.386 328.57 37.98 9.300 21.945 2.6
table beet 1.24 5.536 554.90 61.96 0.555 2.910 29.6
4 fodder beet 2.06 3.781 457.48 129.97 38.100 15.402 9.3
leaf of beet 1.37 4.576 211.69 203.74 52.305 16.019 15.6
top of beet 0.63 3.361 336.06 68.38 7.050 9.060 4.5
corn 1.59 6.991 245.60 35.16 31.845 10.020 3.8
5 mixed grass 3.92 7.186 1814.12 59.28 15.585 7.920 12.3
6 mixed grass 1.76 9.586 836.06 418.80 1.710 5.895 4.1
7 potato 1.92 3.991 675.16 23.89 21.600 8.775 2.1
clover grass 0.85 7.951 1514.70 62.67 14.880 8.865 3.9
8 oats 3.45 6.136 510.56 77.812 10.065 3.810 12.2
mixed grass 3.40 11.236 835.01 116.95 7.575 18.345 4.5
9 oats 1.05 9.301 239.41 61.20 5.445 18.675 19.4
beet 2.48 3.571 335.24 20.68 17.325 0.015 1.5
10 beet 2.01 8.626 610.52 20.50 3.270 14.580 3.1
11 potato 1.42 5.701 263.98 11.94 12.945 0.270 26.9
beet 1.52 10.111 427.43 31.50 7.530 4.725 23.0


Table 5. Mineral Composition of Food From Ukraine and Russia (data from Scientific-Research Institute of Stock-Breeding) mg/kg
plant type F Cu Fe Mn Pb Ni Zn
corn - 1.353 124.51 18.43 0.118 0.220 3.2
fodder beet 0.20 1.918 79.04 11.14 0.150* 0.043 3.3
fodder beet tops 4.0** 1.800 401.40 20.30 0.214 4.6**
potato 0.30 0.790 22.08 1.50 0.227 1.3 1.3
undergrowth 4.3*** 2.000 214.62 21.20 0.302 5.8
clover grass 2.0*** 3.330 1253.96 39.93
oat grass **** 1.37*** 0.981 235.20 20.73
* - Halfsweet beet
** - Sugarbeet tops
*** - Hay
Table 6. Analysis of Plants from Vatutin`s Collective Farm, Rivne Oblast
plant type F Cu Fe Mn Pb Ni Zn
1 grass - 1.009 139.39 66.22 7.1 0.668 26.839
2 silage - 1.939 345.59 50.02 10.6 4.998 24.219
3 potato - 3.359 222.14 5.99 7.6 6.978 21.839
4 fodder beet - 0.399 365.62 3.30 6.2 3.968 16.739

Results of Biosubstrate Investigations

To estimate and classify pollutions health effects on children living in the mining region, 50 children were chosen as subjects. These children were aged 8 to 15, had a high degree of teeth fluorosis, and were permanent residents of the polluted territory. A control group(CT) was formed of children who were permanent residents of the Sykhiv district of Lviv, an ecologically clean area. The children were chosen by the copy-pair method. A clean territory (CT) child was paired to every polluted territory (PT) child. The children had everything in common, except for their living places. Any health differences among the children could be attributed to the environmental influence of their living place. Stages in the development of pathologies were also studied.
The first stage included various examinations, such as: genealogical history of disease, medical-biological, a comprehensive physical, valuing of physical development by centyl tables, organ examinations, analyses with laboratory materials, and questionnaires with parents. As a result of the first stage, healthy children with teeth enamel hyppoplasia and sick children of other somatological[teeth] pathologies were chosen.
The second stage. The bodys reactions to a complex of harmful factors depend on the factor's connection and concentration. Accumulations of eco-toxins in peoples bodies indicate a response to the action of environmental factors. Heavy metals are among the best indicators of the toxicity of the environment. Their accumulation in inhabitants of the Western Ukraine mining region reflects the regions environment. Therefore, a biosubstrate investigation (hair and blood) was conducted on children with hyppoplasia in the polluted territory and normal children in CT, to measure their level of heavy metals(ME), especially Pb and Cd. Studying this question is difficult because in Ukraine supposed normal and critical levels of many chemicals in biosubstrates are problematic. Scientific works on fixing heavy metals in human biosubstrates are few and the results of these investigations are sometimes contradictory. As a result of the second stage, a comparative value of the condition of childrens health and the concentration of heavy metals in their blood and hair was determined.
The third stage. The immune system plays a great role in the bodys defense from harmful environmental factors. The immune system is the foundation of peoples health. Because of this, PT children sick from teeth enamel fluorosis and CT children were examined more carefully regarding immunity indicators and their comparative value to human health. The connection between immunity indicators and bodys microelemental balance was researched.
A complicated valuing of PT and CT childrens health lead to the following results.

Table 7. Distribution of Children of Polluted Territory in Health Groups (average over three years per 1000 examined people)
Gender Health group Age8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 P
male 1 23.83.6% 19.2% 18.9% 16.2% <0.02
2 61.54.1% 62.8% 47.5% 47.8% >0.1
3 14.73% 18% 32.9% 35.7% <0.001
4 0.7% 0.3%
female 1 28.34.1% 20.7% 20.5% 16% <0.01
2 57.54.5% 63.4% 55.5% 53.5% >0.1
3 14.23.2% 15.9% 23% 29% <0.001
4 1% 1.5%
together 1 25.92.7% 20% 19.7% 16.1% <0.001
2 59.73% 63.1% 51.6% 50.4% >0.1
3 14.42.2% 16.2% 27.5% 30.21.5% <0.001
4 0.8% 0.6%
At different ages, there are different numbers of PT children from the 1st health group(healthy children, who do not have any deviations in all health indices, who are not sick during the investigative period, and those who were only slightly ill(sickness did not require treatment)). Their numbers gradually decrease from 25.9% + 2.7 at age 8 to 16.1% at age 15 (P<0.001). At the same time, the number of CT children was almost unchanged (13.5% + 4.7 percent and 24.5% + 3.2, P>0.05). Altogether, healthy children of all ages in the PT make up 17.9% of that group, which is 1.3 times less than in the CT (17.9% versus 24.1%, P<0.001).
The second childrens health group constitutes 55.2% of the total(same in CT, P>0.1). In the second health group, there is an increased risk of chronic pathologies with functional disabilities, genealogical amennes, chronic sickness, and serious diseases with limited rehabilitation possibilities.
The number of children with functional disabilities was unchanged in terms of age in the PT (59.7% + 3 at age 8, 54.8% + 1.6 at age 15, P>0.1). On the contrary, in the CT the number of children with functional disabilities was smaller at age 15(73% + 6.1 at age 8, 52.7% + 3.7 at age 15, P<0.01).



Table 8. PT Children's Health Group Divided by Age (in %)

disruption oforgan functions age 6-7 age 8-9 age 10-11 age 12-13 age 14-15
symptoms oftuberculoses 1.0 0.4 1.0 0.4 2.7 0.7 1.8 0.4
delayed speech development 4.6 1.3 2.0 0.6 1.9 0.5 1.4 0.5 1.0 0.3**
dyslexia 2.2 0.6 7.4 1.1 10.2 1.3 8.0 0.9***
myopia 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.3 1.3 0.5 1.1 0.3 **
cross-eyedness 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.2
bad changes in the body 0.8 0.4 1.2 0.4 2.5 0.6 2.6 0.5**
cardio-pathology 1.5 0.7 2.7 0.7 2.1 0.6 0.9 0.4 1.8 0.4
functional systolic noise 35.7 2.9 32.3 2.1 32.7 1.9 27.11.9 24.51.4***
difficulty in breathing (after a bad cold) 12.62.1 8.61.2 5.20.9 4.80.9 2.20.5***
repeated bronchitis 1.0 0.4 0.20.2 0.20.2 0.30.2
hypertrophy of underpalate glands (HUG) 12.92.1 16.71.6 19.41.6 17.51.6 19.11.3*
adenoids 1.90.8 3.50.8 2.30.6 2.30.6 1.10.3
Lympho-adeno-pathology 2.30.9 1.80.6 1.90.6 2.20.6 2.50.5
often-sick children 6.51.5 10.61.4 7.41.1 6.41.0 3.90.6***
cavities 4.91.3 19.21.7 33.91.9 37.22.0 44.31.6***
digestive tract problems 8.01.7 5.91.0 5.20.9 2.70.7 2.40.5**
allergies 0.40.3 0.70.3 1.30.5 3.10.6***
posture problems 0.40.4 1.60.5 3.30.7 5.91.0 10.21***

precision of differences of comparison values up to 15 years. *=P<0.02, **=P<0.01, ***=P<0.001



The distribution of the second health group of PT children:
cavities(32.6% versus 27.4% CT, P<0.01), functional changes of heart-valve system(a cardiopathology, lowering or accentuation of heart tones; presence of systolic noise of variable intensity, 29.2% versus 25.3% CT, P<0.05), variable pulse of blood pressure). Hypertrophy of underpalate glands(HUG), 17.8% versus 9.8% CT, P<0.001), dyslexia - 6.5%, posture problems: 5.5% versus 2.7% CT, P<0.001), intensive respiratory viruses(more than 5 times a year) -32.5%, allergic reactions - 4.2%.
Problems in nervous system function(1.8% had delayed speech development, speech-neuroses, neuroses, chronically fatigued, 1.7% had vegetative lability) were encountered more often in PT. 1.5% of PT versus 0.15% CT children had digestive tract problems(P<0.001), and tuberculoses symptoms. Before age 15, functional sytobolic noise(P<0.001) and breathing difficulty (P<0.001)occurred rarely. OSC(often sick children) up to age 8 were 1.6 times more common than those up to age 15(P<0.001). Up to age 15, there was more HUG(P<0.02), bad changes in the body(P<0.01), and myopia(P<0.01). There was a sharp increase (even 10 times) of cavities(P<0.001). Digestive tract problems increased 7.7 times(P<0.001), posture problems were 25 times(P<0.001) more common in older children. On the basis of the previous data, we concluded that PT children have a high level of functional tension of organs and systems, and the risk of forming diseases of: the heart/vessel, bronchi-lung system, sight organs, ear/nose/throat organs, muscular/bone system, and the nervous system. PT children have higher rates of hyperchromic anemia, chronic respiratory paths, dermatitis, and kidneys diseases than CT children. Maybe such differences(in level of risk of the various diseases) are connected with constant exposure to an extreme level of environmental pollution.
Functional problems in the health condition of PT children were observed as often in boys as in girls(P<0.1)
PT children in the third health group consisted of 31% cases versus 29% CT (P<0.001). By age 15 the quantity of children of the third health group increased by more than two times(from 14.4 + 2.2% up to 30.2% + 1.5% , P<0.001). There was no change in CT(13.5+4.7% at age 8 - 22.8%+3.1% at age 15).
The analysis of the distribution of the diseases: first place- illnesses of the digestive tract(53%); 2nd place, respiratory organs(25.5%), 3 place- skeletal-muscular system (13.8% versus 10.1% CT) and skin and underskin fat layer -11.1% versus 9.4% CT. The fourth place- mental problems (11.3%); fifth place, nervous system and sensory organs(8.2% versus 5.9% CT).










Table 9. Distribution of the Third Group of PT Children's Health(in %)

disease family Age 6-7 Age 8-9 Age 10-11 Age 12-13 Age 14-15
tuberculosis infection 0.60.3 2.80.7 6.11.0 5.10.7***
obesity 2.30.9 1.20.5 1.40.5 2.30.6 1.70.4
bedwetting 0.40.3 4.00.8 4.70.9 3.70.6***
neurosis 1.10.6 0.80.4 1.40.5 2.90.7 3.30.6**
PMK 0.40.4 0.80.4 0.90.4 0.90.4 1.00.3
BBC 0.40.4 0.60.3 0.70.3 0.50.3 0.70.3
respiratory allergies 1.20.5 1.60.5 2.00.6 2.90.55*
chronic flu(tonsillitis) 0.40.3 0.70.3 0.70.3 1.30.35
chronic ear/nose/ throat and others 1.60.5 0.90.4 2.20.6 1.10.3
chronic digestive tract 0.70.3 0.50.2
ossification of women's reproductive organs 3.01.1 2.20.6 2.80.7 2.00.6 1.30.4
kidney disease 0.40.3 0.40.4 0.20.2 1.10.3
skin allergies 3.41.1 3.10.7 5.20.9 4.70.9 4.00.6
flat-footedness 2.30.9 2.00.6 2.60.6 2.20.6 2.20.5
impotence 1.50.7 1.00.4 1.00.4 0.50.3 0.20.1

Distribution of Digestive Tract Illnesses of PT

Chronic digestive tract problems- 53%, disease of bile pathways in PT 4.4%, in CT 1.5%, invasion of intestinal worms, liver worms, and an imbalance of helpful bacteria 4.4% each, ossification of women's reproductive organs- 5.4%; problems of digestive tract function-3.9%, others- 3.9%, cavities - 86%. A large percent of the diseases may be explained by the close connection with xenobiotics, and the absence of detoxification by the liver. The distribution of digestive tract diseases shows no differences between boys and girls.

Distribution of Respiratory Diseases

25.5% - relapsing and chronic bronchi-lung diseases. Problems with: respiratory allergies - 6.3%; HUG - 60.4%; adenoids- 7.0%; chronic ear/nose/throat- 4.6%; others - 2.1%, HRBI - 18.4%. 25% of children had a combination of respiratory diseases and chronically inflamed ear/nose/throat(ENT) infections. With age, the ENT pathologies increased(HUG decreased). Serious ENT infections were accompanied by long-lasting subfebriliates during the period of sickness, involved recovering and weakening of physical and nervous system. 87% of children had such chronic inflammations of ENT infections.

Distribution of Diseases of Nervous System Sensory Organs

Neuroses: 26.4%(boys-28%, girls-24%); bad changes in body: 21.2%(boys -16.9%, girls 26%); myopia 9.1%(boys 5.6%, girls - 13%); cross-eyedness 5.6%(boys - 6.4%, girls 4.6%); chronic ear inflammation: 6.5%(boys 6.4%, girls 6.5%); others 31.2%(boys 36.7%, girls 25.9%); and bed-wetting (3% versus 2.3% CT). In the disease distribution of the third health group, pathologies were also frequently observed (27%), as are different types of allergies (dermatitis: 4.2% versus 3.0% CT; respiratory allergies - 2.1% versus 1.9 CT). These diseases also are connected with the action of pollution factors, which may cause the future destruction of the immune system and the workings of the adaptive process. 48% of children had a disruption of salt exchange which manifests in a dismetabolic nephro(kidney)pathology, tuberculosis infections (3.5% versus 1.5%), flat-footedness(2.2% versus 2.1), ossification of women's reproductive organs - (2.1%), obesity(1.7%), incomplete closure of the heart valve(0.8%), BBC (0.6%), impotence (0.7%), chronic excretory path 0.5%, and skin diseases - dryness of skin(the skin is sensitive, sensitizing effect of harmful actors(in CT more often body-sweat, hair-rashes, birth-marks). Inherited developmental defects were more common than muscular-skeletal system defects(curved neck, bone-muscle defects of chest, cross-footedness, ossification of women's reproductive organs) and urinary system(inflammation of male sex organs, impotence, doubling of kidney, and urinary pathway)(3 times more than in CT(P<0.001). Disembryonic stigma among children with hypoplasia made up 79.3% of cases. (P<0.05)(connected with genetic-embryotoxic action of xenobiotics). By age 15, there was an increase in the number of tuberculosis infections(P<0.001), children with neuroses (P<0.001), respiratory allergies(P<0.02), and bed-wetting(P<0.001). There were no differences between boys and girls(P>0.1). HUG occurred more often among boys, because it is connected with the formation of the immune system, which finishes later among boys.
The fourth PT health group consisted of 0.6% of the children (spread sores(eczema), neuro-derma, serious bronchial asthma, deafness, inflammation of the hearing nerve, epilepsy on the background of residual organic destruction of the brain). Boys and girls do not essentially differ from each other. However, in the fourth group, girls were sick 2.6 times more often than boys(0.9+0.2% versus 0.3+0.1%, P<0.05). The fourth health group had equal quantities of PT and CT children(0.6+0.1% versus 0.3+0.2%, P>0.1).
We also analyzed the distribution of the children's diseases according to the classifications of the 9th revision of BOS (1975).

Table 10. Distribution of Childrens' Diseases From PT and CT, (in %)

type of Boys Girls together
disease PT CT PT CT PT CT
parasitic infection 6.4+0.65 6.0+1.3 5.1+0.6 7.9+1.5 5.7+0.4 6.9+1
endocrine system 3.1+0.5 1.8+0.7 2.8+0.4 2.8+2.9**** 2.9+0.3**** 2.3+0.6****
mental problem 13.4+0.9 7.4+1.4 9.2+0.8 4.3+1.1 11.3+0.6 5.9+0.9
nervous system 8.8+0.75 5.7+1.3* 7.5+0.7 6.1+1.3 8.2+0.5 5.9+0.9
circulatory system 2.9+0.44 2.4+0.8 3.7+0.5 3.1+0.9**** 3.3+0.3**** 2.7+0.6****
respiratory system 30.1+1.2 21.0+2.2 28.9+1.2 19.5+2.2*** 29.5+0.8*** 20.2+1.5****
skin 8.9+0.75 11.6+1.7 9.8+0.8 10.6+1.7 9.4+0.5 11.1+1.2
excretory system 2.0+0.4 4.2+1.1 2.3+0.4 0.6+0.4 2.1+0.3 2.4+0.6
bone system 15.4+0.9*** 13.1+1.8*** 12.2+0.9 7.0+1.4 13.8+0.6 10.1+1.2
birth defects 2.5+0.4 2.4+0.8 1.4+0.3 0.9+0.5 1.9+0.25 1.8+0.5
digestive tract 37.6+1.3 28.9+2.5 37.7+1.3 30.7+2.5 37.6+0.9 29.8+1.8***
precision of difference of comparison values: *=P<0.05; **=P<0.02; ***=P<0.01; ****=P<0.001.

In PT children, digestive tract problems were most common (37.6%), respiratory problems were second (29.5%), bone/muscle diseases third (13.8%), mental health problems fourth(11.3%), skin, and underskin fat layer problems fifth(9.4%), and nervous system and sensory organs sixth(8.2%). As children aged, problems with the digestive tract, infections, mental health(P<0.001), excretory system, and skin/underskin-fat-layer(P<0.01) became more serious. Boys had mental health problems, bone system problems, and birth defects more often than girls(P<0.001, P<0.02, P<0.05, respectively). Compared with boys, girls had worse vision (2.3 times) and narrowing of blood vessels in the head(headache) 1.5 times more often. The worsening of health of PT children occurred especially before the age of 15 (the number of healthy children became 1.6 times smaller); during that time, the number of healthy CT children remained the same(P>0.1). In the third health group, respiratory system problems(allergies, asthma), skin(dermatological skin allergies), and digestive tract illnesses(chronic illnesses) became more serious; organ and system pathologies are directly related to contact with ecotoxins.
An analogous situation was found with sick children of the second health group. This finding shows that there was a unique process, by which functional problems developed into chronic pathologies.
Analysis of childrens' complaints:
80% of children had symptoms of general unwellness (headaches: in PT 73.3% children, in CT 36 %; dizziness: PT 38.6%, CT 10.2%; feelings of ailment: PT 39.7%, CT 2.3 %; insomnia: PT 6.4% ; exhaustion: PT 39.7%, CT 10.2%; indigestion: PT 17.3%, CT 7.8%; lowering of appetite: PT 27.7%, CT 14.1%; serious acne: PT 5.1%, CT 3.9%; cough: PT 27.7%, CT 17.9%), heartburn: PT 19.8%, CT 2.8%; stomach-ache: PT 66%, CT 7.8%-11,2%); joint/muscle pain: 6.4%, nosebleed: PT 33%, CT 2.3%).

History of Disease as Related to Midwife:

73% of PT mothers had complications during the bearing and birth of their child.

Table 11. Connection Between the Socio-biological History of Disease and Health Condition of PT Children
Risk factors Group 1 Group 2 Group 3
0 factors (none) 2
problems with mother's health due to workplace conditions 1
OAA 4 6
Complications during bearing and birth of child 1 5 2
Sickness 0-6 months after birth of child 2 1 4
often sick during first year of life 1 3 9
living in a polluted environment 1 2 9
a history of the disease in the family 5
Average number of factors per child 1.5 4.35 5.38

Individual analysis of parent's health of PT children.

Structure of mothers` illnesses: respiration, digestive tract, and excretory system problems. Structure of fathers` illnesses: digestive tract, respiration, and skin/allergy problems. Children and their parents most often had problems with their respiratory and digestive systems,(which are the most influenced by the polluted environment), and the pathologies were observed from generation to generation.

Physical development(PD)
Results of the investigation of average indicators of PD(table 12)
Table 12. Indicators of Height and Weight of Children. (P>0.01)
Age PT CT
Boys Girls Boys Girls
Mm s Mm s Mm s Mm s
Height
8 129.0+0.4 4.0 130.50.4 4.1 128.30.4 4.5 126.10.4 4.0
9 133.5+0.3 5.6 135.60.4 4.6 134.30.5 3.2 130.50.4 4.5
10 136.9+0.4 4.9 137.30.5 5.2 137.40.5 4.2 132.60.5 4.6
11 141.7+0.5 5.4 143.60.5 5.8 144.20.5 5.1 142.00.5 5.6
12 145.20.4 4.8 150.80.6 6.4 146.00.4 3.8 149.30.5 5.2
13 155.40.5 5.5 155.00.5 5.0 157.20.5 5.3 160.60.5 5.4
14 160.70.5 5.8 157.70.6 5.7 165.00.5 5.9 161.70.5 5.0
15 166.50.4 4.4 161.50.5 5.2 170.50.4 3.8 164.20.6 5.8
Weight
8 26.10.3 3.2 27.30.4 4.0 25.70.3 3.2 24.70.4 3.7
9 27.90.4 4.3 29.30.4 4.4 28.30.4 3.7 24.90.4 4.1
10 29.10.4 3.6 33.00.6 5.7 29.70.5 4.9 25.30.4 3.6
11 34.00.5 5.1 34.80.5 6.1 33.80.6 5.6 32.60.5 5.2
12 37.80.5 5.0 40.90.6 6.1 34.60.5 5.4 35.70.4 4.5
13 41.80.5 5.2 42.50.6 6.4 42.20.5 5.4 44.50.5 5.9
14 48.30.6 6.1 48.90.6 6.3 50.70.5 6.3 49.30.6 6.9
15 53.80.6 6.4 53.50.6 6.6 52.40.6 6.8 53.20.6 6.5

showed that a child's physical development depended on his living place, age, and sex. PT girls up to age 13 were taller and heavier than CT girls(a statistically significant difference, P<0.05). After age 13, PT girls were shorter than their CT counterparts, without a weight difference. The differences between PT girls and PT boys were as expected (girls before age 13 were taller, and on average, heavier than PT boys. After age 13, girls were shorter without a weight difference.)
PT boys in all age groups were shorter than CT boys(with an average difference in group height greater than one cm. in boys aged 11, 13, 14, and 15, P<0.05). A difference in weight between boys according to living place was not observed; only a rise in weight of PT boys at age 12, and CT boys age 14, was noticed(P<0.05).
CT boys were taller than CT girls in almost all age groups and had larger weight (except ages 12 and13, P<0.05) This coincided with known theories of the unequal growth and development rate between boys and girls, according to which, the physical data of boys dominate that of girls. In the pubescent period, the growth and development rate of CT girls was higher. The PT girls did not grow as quickly in that period.
The average physical data of children of both territories differed in height, but were equal in weight.
The physical development (PD) data showed that 82.5% of PT boys and 83.7% of PT girls (93.6% CT boys, 80.4% CD girls, P<0.001) had normal PD. 17.5% of PT boys and 16.3% PT girls (16.4% and 19.6% of CD) had various deviations from normal PD, such as:

1. low height -- PT: 3.7 % boys, 3.3 % girls (CT: 0.8% boys, 1.8% girls).
2. high height -- PT: 0.7 % boys, 4.1% girls (CT: 6.6% boys, 0.9% girls).
3. low weight -- PT: 11.7 % boys, 11.4 % girls. (CT: 5.7 % boys, 17% girls.
4. overweight --PT: 1.5 % boys, 1.6 % girls. (CT: only boys 0.8 %.
5. delayed PD -- PT: 1.5 % boys, 1.6 % girls. (CT: 0.8 % boys, 1.8 % girls.

Table 13. Distribution of Deviations From Normal Physical
Development of Children (in %, P<0.05)
District Sex Normal PD low height high height low weight over-weight delayed PD
PT boys 82.5 3.7 0.7 11.7 1.5 1.5
girls 83.7 3.3 4.1 11.4 0.8 1.6
CT boys 83.6 0.8 6.6 5.7 2.5 0.8
girls 80.4 1.8 0.9 17 - 1.8
PT 83.1 3.5 2.3 11.2 1.2 1.5
CT 82.1 1.3 3.8 11.1 1.3 1.3


82.1% - 83.1% of children had normal PD, independent of living place(table 13). 82.1% to 83.1% of children had the average level of PD in the oblast(body weight from M - 1 G to M + 2 G, with height, except short children) (P>0.1). Children were divided according to their distribution of physical development. In the PT there were many boys and girls (M+2G) in CT as compared to PT, especially boys(P<0.01). However, in PT, there was a group of children where girls were taller than boys. There was no difference in weight between children in PT and CT (P>0.05). CT girls predominated among children with low body weight, (P<0.05).
With the physical development data(central method), we divided children by the normality of their PD. 86.8% of PT children, and 89.6% of CT had normal physical development, but in both zones, boys more often than girls were normally developed. Children were divided into 5 groups according to weight and height, with boundaries + 1G (normal development); deviation higher or lower than 1.1 G was termed abnormal development, and higher or lower than 2.1 G -- sharply abnormal development(Table 14).

Table 14. Division of Children (in %) With Normal Development According to Height (P<0.001)

height PT CT
boys girls boys girls
tall 0.8 - 1.5 0.8
high-average - 2.7 2.9 7.3
average 71.3 57.1 80.3 72.4
low-average 13.9 8 7.3 4.9
low 6.6 12.5 0.7 2.4

Analysis of schoolchildren's height showed us that in comparison with CT, where there is an optimal concentration of fluorine and heavy metals in drinking water, in the PT there were higher percentages of children with low-average and low height. The weights of tall, high-average, and average schoolchildren decrease. The high fluorine and heavy metal concentrations of the PT are the only way to explain the weight decease, because the social living conditions are the same.

Table 15. Development Distribution of Children (%) (P<0.05)


zone normal PD abnormalPD over-weight under weight low height high height
PT 86.8 13.2 0.9 3.5 3.1 3.5
CT 89.6 10.4 0.8 4.7 0.9 6.0

The data of the division of children's development(table 15), shows a tendency towards smaller numbers of children with normal development and larger numbers of children with abnormal development in PT, on account of children with low height. The most common type of abnormal and sharply abnormal development in PT children is low height, but in the CT, it is high height.
Posture problems in the PT were twice as common as in the CT (5.6%-2.7%). The rise in this deviation up to age 15 was considerable in PT(the influence of ecological factors on the strength of muscles and joints).
Electrocardiograms were administered to children who had indicators of heart trouble (heartpain, heart murmurs, and arhymthic heartbeats).
14.1% of children had distinct metabolism changes in their heart chambers.
5.1% had increases of electrical activity of their heart chambers
66.1% had various problems of heart rhythm(bradiocardia-22.5%; bradioarythms 13%; taxicardia 14.5%, arrhythmic heart graph 11.6%; blockage of Giza's leg bundles- 21.4%; stress on the right heart chamber 9.2%).
The changes of central heart system in PT children was connected with 1) result of narrowing of blood vessels in the head(headache) 2) approximate influence of an unbalanced metabolism on heart functions 3) actions on the heart muscle (a disruptive processes on the microstructural level).
Under observation of exhalation function (the goal of investigation of VLC(vital lung capacity) was to discover the most informative indicators) in PT children, the average VLC indicator was higher in boys than in girls(in PT boys: 1.4 + 0.02 l, in CT: 1.14+0.05, P<0.001. In PT girls: 1.25+0.002 l , in CT: 0.97 +0.04 P<0.001, (1.4 + 0.002 l versus 1.26 + 0.02 l , P<0.001). 89.5% of PT children had the average indicator VLC(88.3% of boys and 90.5% of girls), 58% of CT children (P<0.05). 3.3% of PT children: 3.3+1.4, in 42% of children of the CT - 42 + 6.5 (p<0.001), 2.9% of boys and 3.6% girls had lower indicators of VLC 8.8% of boys and 5.9% of PT girls(average 7.2%) had indicators of VLC. In comparison with the CT, in the PT there was a higher level of VLC(P<0.001) (7.2%)- the result of the high-stimulating action of concentrated ecotoxins. There were close mutual connections with VLC and sicknesses of children, with indicators of height and weight. Indicators of FVLC and VLC in every child change in parallel when the index of Tiffno does not decrease more than 84%.

Conclusions

1. The average physical data(height and weight) of children in both territories (PT and CT) are different, but the weight difference is small.
2. The number of children with normal physical development in both territories are the same, the only difference is in dividing children according to their deviations from normal physical development.
3. In the PT there are many boys and girls with low height. In general, tall children are found more often in the CT.
4. In the PT fewer children have normal physical development than in the control group.
5. In the PT, many children have low height; in the CT, many children have high height.
6. The main manifestation of abnormal physical development in PT is low height; in CT, it is high height.
7. These facts testify about the ecologically dangerous influence of the Western Ukraine mining region on the development of the region's childrens' bones.

Indicators of blood pressure(BP)

We checked the BP of PT children. The average BP was higher in boys than in girls(95.0 + 1.0 mm. rt.ct versus 92.3 + 0.8 mm. rt. ct., P<0.05 and 58.0 + 0.6 mm.rt.ct versus 55.6 + 0.7 mm.pt.ct., P<0.02, respectively). In PT, the average BP was lower[sic. higher] than in the CT(this is the influence of environmental factors on the pulse of blood vessels). PT boys had diastolic pressure 95.0 + 1.0, in CT: 87.6 + 1.44 (P<0.001). PT Girls had 92.3 + 0.8; CT girls: 88.2+1.34 (P<0.01). PT boys had systolic blood pressure of 58.0 + 0.6; CT 52.6 + 1.5 (P<0.01). PT Girls had 55.6 + 0.7, in the clean territory: 52.0 + 1.44 (P<0.05). Low blood pressure (hypotonia) was found in 13.4% of PT children; in CT it was 27.4%(P<0.05). Hypertension was found only among PT children(4.3%). In comparison with girls, boys more often had high blood pressure(6.2 + 2.7 versus 2.8+ 1.6, P>0.1). 4.3% of PT children to the age of 15 had increased BP, 10-20% from normal.
Lower levels of BP were found more often in girls than in boys(17.9 + 3.7 versus 7.5 + 2.9, P<0.05).

Results of the General Blood Analysis
Table 16. Indicators of the General Blood Analysis, Factors of Natural Resistance and Immunity of Polluted Territory(PT) Children

Indicators healthy children p=26 R/k standards HE p=41 R
leukocytes 6.4+0.36 <0.05 6.9+0.34 >0.1
erythrocytes 4.0+0.16 <0.05 4.2+0.14 >0.1
lymphocytes 45+1.3 >0.05 47+1.5 >0.1
4+0.5 >0.1 5+0.45 >0.1
46+1.4 >0.05 42+1.5 >0.1
monocytes 2+0.5 <0.05 2+0.4 >0.1
nitrophiles 3+0.3 <0.05 4+0.35 >0.1
7+0.8 >0.1 8+0.8 >0.1
lysozyme of saliva (mkg/ml) 109.4+12 >0.1 99+7.15 >0.1
Ig A mg% 74+10.7 <0.05 54.4+5.2 >0.1
Ig M 124+7.9 <0.001 133.8+7.1 >0.1
Ig G 556+27.8 <0.001 507.6+23.4 >0.1
circulatory immunal complexes 124.4+11.3 <0.05 122.9+5.3 >0.1


Table 17. Amount of Healthy and Sick Children from hypoplasia with Changed Indicators (in %)

indicator amount of children with average levels number of children with lowered levels number of children with raised levels
healthy HE healthy HE healthy HE
26 41 26 41 26 41
leukocytes 57.7+9.7 51.0+7.8 19.2+7.7 17.0+5.8 23.1+8.3 32.0+7.3
erythrocytes 53.8+9.7 49.0+7.8 27.0+8.7 34.0+7.4 19.2+7.7 17.0+5.8
lymphocytes 42.3+9.7 27.0+6.9 34.6+9.3 34.0+7.4 23.1+8.3 39.0+7.6
nuclear-stick nitrophiles 61.5+9.5 73.0+8.7 23.1+8.3 15.4+7.1 27.0+6.9
segmented nuclear nitrophiles 61.5+9.5 27.0+6.9* 15.4+7.1 39.0+7.6* 23.1+8.3 34.0+7.4
monocytes 96.2+3.7 92.7+4.1 3.8+3.7 7.3+4.1
aeozonophiles 53.8+9.7 53.7+7.8 46.2+9.8 46.3+7.8
speed of coagulation of erythrocytes 61.5+9.5 73.0+8.7 46.2+9.8 58.5+7.7 38.5+9.5 27.0+6.9
lysozyme of saliva 46.2+9.8 41.5+7.7 34.6+9.3 51.2+7.8 7.6+5.2
Sig A (sectratory immuno-globulin A) 57.7+9.7 41.5+7.7 7.7+5.2 7.3+4.1
Ig M immuno-globulin M 46.2+9.8 19.5+6.2** 61.5+9.5 75.6+6.7 53.8+7.8 80.5+6.2**
Ig G immuno-globulin G 38.5+9.5 24.4+6.7
CICcirculatory immunal complexes 30.8+9.0 22.0+6.4 69.2+9.1 78.0+6.5

precision of difference of comparison values *=P<0.05; **=P<0.2

The table shows that the average level of ZAK indicators of healthy PT children differ from standards(Mazurin, Vorontsov, 1986). There were lower numbers of leukocytes, erythrocytes, monocytes (P<0.05), and higher numbers of aeozonophiles (P<0.05). Healthy PT children had: lowering of leukocytes, 19.2% of children; lowering of erythrocytes - 27%; lowering of lymphocytes - 34.6%; nuclear rods(nr) and nuclear segments(ns) - 23.1%, 15.4%. An increase of leukocytes, ns, and lymphocytes in 23.1% of the cases, an increase of erythrocytes in 19.2% of cases, an increase of aeozenophiles 46.2%, and an increase in SSOE(speed of subsidence of erythrocytes) -38.5% was observed.
Children with HTE (hypoplasia of tooth enamel) did not have physical differences from healthy children(P>0.1). Raised and lowered levels of examined indicators were registered in the same quantity of sick children as among healthy children(P>0.1). But in children with HTE, the lowering of ns levels occurred more often than among healthy children(P>0.05).
The concentration of hemoglobin in Sosnivka children increases with age, but this indicator was clearly lower than in CT healthy children. In the PT, the average concentration of hemoglobin was found in 24% of children, a lowering of concentration by 100 g/l was found in 17.5% children. In CT, the average levels were found in 62.5% children, and extreme lowering is not observed. The lowest levels of hemoglobin were observed among PT children who were age 10. The level of anemia among schoolchildren increased with their age(an increased mental and physical workload, and a decline of nervo-hormonal - earlier predictors of the pubescent period, the influence of ecological factors). The lowering of hemoglobin incidentally showed the initiation of the destruction of the spinal cord.

Erythrocytes

The increase in the amount of erythrocytes(according to standards and lower amounts of hemoglobin) was clear in all age groups(the activation of erythrocyte-producers was a consequence of compensatory processes, which attempted to strengthen the regeneration of the spinal cord, due to a deficient condition). The average volume of erythrocytes in Sosnivka children increased with age; this was not observed in CT children. The increase of the average contents of hemoglobin in erythrocytes with age was revealed only in the boys of Sosnivka. The average concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes, the average saturation of erythrocytes with hemoglobin, was dependent on the age of Sosnivka children. A clear lowering of the average concentration of hemoglobin occurred, with a high level of certainty, which testified about the hidden level of anemia of children. Some PT children, as compared with CT children, registered low concentrations of erythrocytes(3.45-3.81 x 1012/l + 1.21). Depending of age, it was shown that the older children had the lowest amount of erythrocytes. It is very important to notice the clear lowering of average volume of erythrocytes in all age groups of PT as compared with CT(changes of concentration of erythrocytes in the blood is one of the marks of an ecologically harmful territory).
According to the amount of hemoglobin, slight anemia was revealed in 16.03% of PT children(CT, 7.53%, P<0.001). The progression of anemia differed in the two territories; in the PT anemia was more often accompanied by incidental stomatic pathologies.
Trombocytes. The average level of trombocytes in the blood of Sosnivka children was clearly lower than in ct children.
Monocytes. A lowering occurred. Lowering of trombocytes, bazophiles, and monocytes were the results of defense and compensatory mechanisms.
The average amounts of leukocytes were clearly lower(6.4+0.36 versus 5.9%+0.2, p<0.05). The lowering of nr's leukocytes -- while ns maintained a stable concentration of leokocytes -- meant a lowering of reactive possibilities of blood. Ns/nr(index of regeneration) is only 56% of the control level. SSOE showed an increase.
AEOZEONPHILES. 50% children of 8 years had increases(CT in 50 %); at age 15, there were increases of aeozonphiles in 63.3% of PT children, in CT: 30%. The aeozonophile-basophile association is evident for allergic conditions.
LYMPHOCYTES: There was no distinct difference between PT and CT. At age 10, the increase of lymphocytes was clear. The increases of lymphocytes and reticules were signs of compensentary reactions of body against environmental factors. At 15 years, the lowering of lyphomcytes marked the initial phase of depression of immunal defense in children. Their absence in the leukocytic formula shows the clear advantage of neutrophiles over lymphocytes(this fact can be also explained by the tension on the lymphmo-producers and the constant stimulation of the human system by xenobiotics). During the analysis of the age indicators of the blood systems, it was revealed that at the age of 7-9 years, children from Sosnivka differ from CT by up to four hermatological indicators. At age 12-14, they differ by 7 to 13 indicators. With age, a loading of changes in the blood system occurs in children, which is connected with the blood formation system's increasing exposure to harmful ecological factors.
The oscillation of hermatological indicators are on the boundaries of physiological ranges, and these oscillations have larger amplitude than in healthy children. The changes in blood, on a whole, do not conform to "physiological" standards, and are not indicators of disease. Their character is valued as a compensatory-adaptation.

Biochemistry

Biochemical tests only react to normal expressed imbalance of metabolic processes, therefore they are the least sensitive to environmental factors.
Genograms of children of the second health group of PT showed that up to age 10, there is a constant tendency towards a reduction of leukocytes in all age groups, also a reduction of lymphocytes, increase of nitrophiles, and a decrease of aeozonophiles, and, for a smaller number of children, a reduction of monocytes. Schoolchildren older than 10, in smaller numbers, (in comparison with other subgroups) experienced an increase of lymphocytes, neutrophiles, and azononphiles, and a reduction of monocytes. The biochemistry of the second health group was the same as the second control group.
Genograms of children of the third health group showed a constant tendency towards a reduction of leukocytes, a increase of neutophiles, a reduction of lymphocytes, an increase of azonophiles, and a reduction of monocytes.

Concentration of Micro- and Macroelements in Blood and Hair

Finally, micro and macroelements(ME) play a greater role in the polluting of the environment, including heavy metals. Microelements are widely represented in nature and play an important part in the development of the body's vital processes: they take part in the formation of immune system, they are connected with the activity of inner secretion glands, enzymes, vitamins, hormones and they also take part in all kind of exchanges. They influence the functions of growth and reproduction of gametes.
The most active absorption of ME takes place during a growth period of the body, therefore biosubstrates of the children's population were investigated with respect to ME. Taking into consideration that hair is a ME accumulator and a good indicator of the ME situation in the whole body, the contents of separate ME elements (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb) in children's hair were analysed, from children who are sick from teeth fluorosis in the polluted territory(PT). Average indicators of ME content in children's hair of the controlled territory(CT) were also determined.
The results of the investigation of the children of the polluted territory showed changes from all concentrations of ME, compared to regional standards. Results of the investigation are given in table 18.

Table 18. ME Contents of Hair and Blood of PT and CT Children (mkg/g)

ME object of investigation regional norms CT PT
Fe hair 6-7 4.5 2.23
blood 580 417+103 351.53+112*
Cu hair 10-11 12.70.64 10.0+0.5**
blood 1.36 2.08* 0.98**
Zn hair 131 45.06.1 15.0+4.2
blood 6.12 5.18 4.91
Mn hair 2-3 1.19+0.25 0.70.1
blood 0.15 0.14 0.06
Pb hair 3.6 1.810.4 3.6+0.72
blood 0.35 0.39*** 0.45***
Cr hair 0.62 0.66+0.2 1.10+0.15(**)
blood 0.31-0.33 0.45 0.64(*)
Cd hair 0.1 6.29+1.4*** 17.18+3.9***
blood 0.05 0.1190.22*** 0.49***

Precision of difference of comparison values: *=P<0.05,**=P<0.001,(*)=P<0.02,(**)=P<0.01,***=P<0.001

Sharp decreases of the contents of Fe and Mn(by almost 3 times), Zn(7 times), and increases of Cr(almost 2 times, and Cd(two orders of magnitude) in PT children's hair were observed(table 18). Changes of ME in hair structure were also discovered with CT children(the data shown in comparison with regional norms). The contents of Fe(1.5 times), Zn(3 times), Mn and Pb(two times) decreased and stood out against a background of rising Cu(10-15%) and substantially rising Cd(more than an order of magnitude).
In accordance with the results of the blood test, the PT children, in comparison with regional norms, had lower levels of Fe, Cu and Zn(1.5 times), Mn (2 times), and increases of Cr(2 times), Cd(by an order of magnitude), and Pb(1.5 times). For children of CT, the changes consisted of a small decrease of Fe and Zn(20%), Mn and Pb(two times), Cr (1.5 times), and the rising of Cd(two times).
The changes of ME contents equally affected the PT children's blood and hair. Children of both regions(PT and CT) had ME concentrations, which differed in comparison with regional norms. They were in the same direction, but the more sharply expressed changes were with the PT children(from reliable sources in every respect to all analyses of investigative data).
The rising levels of heavy metals of observed children in the PT was connected with the data of the blood in the extremities(the contents of erythrocytes, the level of hemoglobin, and the quantity of leukocytes(g=0.8, P<0.05)). The decreasing of Zn and Cu in PT children had an influence on circulation systems and immune systems(the changes of separate data of General Blood Analysis and immune system).

Immunological Investigation

The investigation revealed that, among PT children: 10 children (20%) who made the first risk group of immunological insufficiency, and 5 children(4.3%) who made up the group of heightened risk of immunological insufficiency(II). In the first risk group of II were children with relapses of inflammations, atopichial, autoimmune, and lymphoprolipheritis(disease of lymphatic vessels), in different combinations and also children chronically sick from sharp respiratory virus infections(six or more times a year). When the heightened risk group suffered from II, the aforementioned indicators of one patient(4+), frequency and seriousness of relapses, and the character of the disease were taken into account.
In children of the first risk group of II, the clinical signs are different. They may be grouped into 4 syndromes: infectious, allergic, autoimmune, and immuno-proliferating. In the II risk group, the largest number of children were those born in 1986-1988(45%) with a slight preference for boys (56%). 50 Children had immunological tests of the first level by Petrov.
Expressed infectious syndrome was observed with 40(80%) children of the risk group for II. This conformed to native and foreign theories of how this syndrome is widely spread. The syndrome often manifests itself as an infection of the respiratory tract(parts of sharp respiratory virus infections 32.5%) or relapsing and chronic bronchitis(25.5%), in combination with chronically inflamed ear/nose/throat organs(25%). Rarely, relapsing genital herpes(5%), bacterial skin infections and underskin adipose cell infections(3%), and chronic diarrheria(3%). Infections such as wounded stomatitis, lymphatic adenoids, and urological infections(1.5%) made little contribution to the distribution of this infectious syndrome.


Table 19. Results of the Immunological Analyses.
Immunological indicator Standard leading-infection Immuno-pathological allergy autoimmun-ological syndrome
T-lymps. % 67.26+1.32 60.9+1.0*** 60.0+1.5*** 61.1+1.6*
T-l. .10 g/l 1.68+0.1 1.61+0.1 1.37+0.1 1.6+0.1
B lymph. % 24.05+0.9 24.7+0.85 21.5+1.7*** 22.8+1.3*
B lymphs. 10 g/l 0.59+0.04 0.56+0.04 0.54+0.05*** 0.57+0.07
IG M mg % 102 157 124+7.6*** 133.8+7.1
IG A 128.6 74+10.7 94.4+5.2 54.4+3.3***
IG G 1189 1244+113* 1229+53* 947+31*

An analysis of the level of immunological indicators during the infection syndrome revealed an appreciable decrease in relative and absolute amounts of T-lymphocytes (P<0.001), Ig A concentration (P<0.001), and an increase (in the younger school group) of the concentrations of Ig G and Ig M (P<0.05) in comparison with healthy children.
The decrease of T-link indicators of the immune system is directly related to the influence of xenobiotics. As a result of ecological stress, a mechanism of redistribution of lymphoid elements in the system of "blood-constant lymphoid tissue" is formed. This does not exclude the immuno-suppresant action of xenobiotics, which cause somatic mutations and problems in DNA reparation of lymphocytes. Xenobiotics also may have toxic effects on the growth and proliferation processes of thymocytes. The drop of numbers T-cells is possible at the expense of retarding of the T-cells exit into the bloodstream from secondary lymphoid bodies(dysfunctional thymus). The decrease of T-cells of the immune system is especially shown at pathologies of ear/nose/throat (ENT) organs(P<0.001). Among T-lymphocytes there were more T-helper cells than T-suppresser cells (P<0.05).


Table 20. Character of Interrelation Between the Level of Microelements (mg/kg) in PT Childrens Hair (M m) and Immune System Indicators
Element CD 3% CD 16% Cd 8% CD 4% Ig A Ig M Ig G CIC
Mn 0.04 0.15 0.05 0.16 0.21 0.14 -0.26 -
Zn 0.46 0.64 0.12 0.18 0.18 0.82 0.58 0.17
Fe -0.88 0.43 0.02 -0.13 0.34 -0.12 -0.3 -0.31
Cu 0.23 -0.9 -0.14 0.23 0.48 -0.02 -0.16 -0.62
Pb 0.11 -0.2 0.35 0.2 -0.14 -0.69 0.75 0.07
Cd 0.4 -0.3 0.03 -0.27 -0.14 -0.28 0.4 0.32

The destruction of PT children's humoral immune system is due to the influence of microelements (MEs)(table 20). Therefore, the worsening environmental condition of the territory leads to a failure of adaptive mechanisms of humoral regulation and an increase in the risk of a whole spectrum of pathological conditions.


Saliva

Ig M will not penetrate biological membranes and normally is absent in saliva. In the saliva of CT children, Ig M was not observed; in 2 PT children,10 years old, (6.6%) it was present. In extreme situations the concentration of Ig G in saliva rises. Frequently Ig G is connected to Ig M, which are observed in the structure of saliva-proteins. Their functions are fixing of complements, neutralization of toxins, and opsonization. A normal amount of Ig G was determined for children's saliva. In 10-year old PT children, Ig G was found in 5 children (16.6%) at concentrations > 10.0 mg % (in CT: 1 child (3.3%), two 15-year-old PT children (6.6%)). These data showed that in 10 year-olds from PT, the concentration of Ig G is higher than average. The secretor Ig A is used up, as it provides neutralization against toxins and viruses, and also interferes with the fixation of bacteria on mucous, and forms a protective film on the surface of a mucous stomatic cavity and teeth. In PT there was a tendency towards decreases of concentration of Ig A (normal for healthy children: 20 - 50 mg %)as the age of children decreases (differences by sex are not present). So an indicator of Ig A at 8-aged children-- 14 mg %; CT --20 mg %. For 10-year-olds: 14 mg % (CT - 20 mg %). The decrease of Ig A shows the lowering of total immunal reactivity and humoral immunity. These are links of one pathogenetic chain.

Humoral immunity

Immunoglobin levels in blood, the "first link" of the body's protective forces, are the most sensitive to harm from toxins. In PT children, increases of Ig G, Ig M, and Ig A were observed, (decrease of Ig A in 10-year olds); there is a direct dependence between the amounts of -helpers and Ig M, a primary response antibody(r=0.71 in PT children, <0.001) and Ig G, a secondary response antibody(r =0.42 in PT children, P<0.05). High levels of the CIC indicator were found in 78% of PT children. A decrease of Ig G in tandem with Ig M was often observed. In 13.04% of PT children the amount of immunoglobin in their blood essentially did not correspond to their age(changes in development are connected with age). In addition, in 6.85% of PT children the level of immunoglobin was 1 Q lower than normal, which allowed correlation of them to children with delayed post-natalion(post-birth) development of humoral immunity ("slowly-starting children"). We discovered a high level of correlation between these indicators, which suggests the existence of some general mechanisms of regulation of their balance. The ability of the immune system to express a large number of classes of immunoglobins should be taken into consideration when interpreting these findings. This is a perfect example of the biological systems adaptation to perform necessary functions. Everything confirms that xenobiotics cause somatic mutations of lymphoid cells, which later destroy immune cells in children. The general indicators of the immune system are correlated with the results of the local immune system of saliva. Thus, in PT children, immuno-dependant pathologies can be formed in the future, as a result of the exhaustion and breakdown of adaptive mechanisms. Many PT children already have a failure of compensatory mechanisms.
The characteristics of the immune system are more indicative during dono-zoological diagnostics. The results of interrelation of the child's body and environmental factors are directly proportional to force of the factors' actions, and inversely proportional to the reactivity of the body in relation to health reserves.

CONCLUSIONS:

1. It was not found that children, who live in territory polluted with fluorine and heavy metal salts, suffered from specific pathological reactions.
2. 68% of PT children suffer from a disease of tooth enamel -- hypoplasia
3. Clear and statistically significant changes in health condition are observed in these children.
4. Ecologically harmful factors (fluorine and other heavy metals) harmfully influence the condition of children's health, shown as the formation of chronic bronchitis, hepatitis A and B, digestive, and urinary system problems. Among these children, there is a high frequency of allergic diseases, birth defects, genetic diseases, and also oncology pathologies.
5. These children also have a high degree of functional stress on there bodies and systems, which is shown by an increase in the number of children with abnormal physical development, and mental and emotional instabilities. Different children have functional problems with their cardiovascular system, nervous system, ear/nose/throat (ENT) organs, and kidneys. The number of sick children is growing.
6. In the formation of dental and tooth enamel pathologies of children, among all the genetic factors, obstrecition-gynocological history of disease(anemnes) played the main role in determining the parents and familys disposition to the pathology.
7. There is a mutual relationship between the characters of disease, serious transitory eco-pathologies, and children and especially their immune systems.
8. Infections and allergic conditions are the most common immuno-pathology among PT children.
9. Living in a territory polluted by fluorine and heavy metal salts leads to an imbalance of immune status(lowering immunoglobin, simultaneously with an increase of lymphocytes in blood in the extremities, a decrease of T-cells of the immune system and immunoregulatory index, an increase of CICs, and an imbalance of complimentary components. In saliva there is a lowering of secretions of immunoglobin A and the lysozyme activity of saliva, and a change in the consistence of saliva albumen).
10. The ecological influence to children's immune systems is felt by a direct toxic affect to the immune system's albumen, as a secondary immunosuppresant, or by development of autoimmune reactions through destruction of cytogenetic homeostasis.
11. More than half of PT children have elevated levels of heavy metals in their blood and hair.
12. There is a close relationship between indicators of immunograms and the contents of almost all microelements, which provide evidence of a complicated influence on the immune system.
13. The main relationship between the immune system and micro-elements was to gather additional information(in comparison to healthy children) and placement of sick children into risk groups of developing pathological conditions.


Summary

The completed investigation regarding the ecological situation in the district of Sosnivka, Lviv region, allowed not only to approximately measure the scale and intensity of industrial pollution in the investigated territory, but also to elucidate the reasons for the epidemic of childrens illnesses here.
The main conclusion of this investigation is that the coal-mining and coal-washing of the Chervonograd coal-mining company leads to intensive pollution by toxic elements of soil and ground water. Complex analysis of the distribution of concentration of pollutants(F, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn) shows that there are two zones of industrial pollution. The first is to the north of Sosnivka and includes the territories of mines 5 and 8, the CCMF, and the surrounding territories; the second is comprised of streambed of the Zolotava and Western Bug rivers(see "Results of the geochemical investigation").
The main source of industrial pollution of the area are the storage areas for waste coal and terricones(slag-heaps) of the mines (see "Elemental analysis of sources of industrial pollution").
Fluorine and heavy metals are concentrated in plants, which are eaten by p


04 2005



         
Email


email
email @
email !
,